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Native American Time Line

"If the white man wants to live in peace with the Indian, he can live in peace...Treat all men alike. Give them all the same laws. Give them all an even chance to live and grow. All men are made by the same Great Spirit Chief. They are all brothers. The Earth is the mother of all people, and all people should have equal rights upon it... Let me be a free man, fee to travel, free to stop, free to work, free to trade...where I choose my own teachers, free to follow the religion of my fathers, free to think and talk and act for myself, and I will obey every law, or submit to the penalty." Chief Joseph-1732-1794
"There is universal agreement that Homo sapiens sapiens occupied the Americas by 11,200 radiocarbon years ago, over 13,000 years ago" Source: THE PALEOAMERICANS
1000 Vikings first made contact with Native Americas
1492 Columbus first contacts Native Americans
1621 Indians and Puritans met and celebrated the First Thanksgiving
1637 Pequot War  , the colonist fought for control of Indian land
1700s  French and Indian War, King Philip's War, King William's War, and Queen Anne's War Native Americans took sides of both the English and the French.
1776-1783  American Revolution "Many native communities were divided over which side to support in the war. For the Iroquois Confederacy, the American Revolution resulted in civil war: The Six Nations split with the Oneidas and Tuscaroras siding with the Americans and the other four nations fighting for the British. While the Iroquois tried to avoid fighting directly against one another, the Revolution eventually forced Iroquois-to-Iroquois combat. The defeated groups (as well as those who supported the Americans) lost much of their land within the United States. The Crown aided the landless Iroquois by rewarding them with a reservation at Grand River in Canada. Cherokees split into a neutral (or pro-American) faction and the anti-American faction that the Americans referred to as the Chickamaugas, led by Dragging Canoe. Many other communities were similarly divided." Source: Wikipedia
1819  Congress appropriates $10,000 to "civilize" the Native Americans.
1824  The Bureau of Indian Affairs established in the War Department.
1830 The Indian Removal Act Congress states that existing treaties did not constitute federal recognition of Indian sovereign rights to the soil of their homelands.
1830 The State of Georgia declares all Cherokee tribal office holders criminals and unilaterally extended its laws over the Cherokee nation.
1830 The Indian Removal Act  Sets aside land in Indian Territory for the "Five Civilized Tribes" Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek and Seminole.
1830 The "Trail of Tears" moves the Cherokee Nation west of the Mississippi into Oklahoma and the Indian Territory.
1832 Worcester vs. Georgia US Supreme Court rules that treaties were the "Supreme law of the land" and that Georgia's laws did not apply within the Cherokee nation. Georgia ignores the ruling and the government fails to back up the decision.
1832  Commissioner of Indian Affairs established in the War Department. (See Timeline)
1834   The Trade and Intercourse Act prohibits the sale of intoxicants to Indians and establishes the need of a license to travel in Indian land.
1849  The Interior Department gains control of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
1851  Fort Laramie Treaty
1855-1858  The Tribes of the Pacific Coast  forced onto reservations by the military.
1862 Abraham Lincoln commutes the death sentences of 300 Santee Sioux suspected of taking part in the Minnesota uprising.  Thirty eight were hanged however making it the largest hanging in US history.
1866 "Five Civilized Tribes" were forced to give up the western part of their territory to the US for the use of the  Arapaho, Cheyenne,  Kiowa, Wichita,  Comanche, and Osage.
1870 President Grant starts Peace Policy. Money was  earmarked for federal education of the Indians, however corruption and graft took much of the money.
1871 Congress rules that the tribes were no longer independent nations and treaties could no longer be negotiated.
1874 Executive order sets aside the Leech Lake Reservation.
1878  The first funds for Indian police established by Congress.
1883 US Supreme Court rules that an American Indian is by birth an  "alien" and is thus dependent on the government.
1887 Dawes Act , General Allotment Act divides up tribal land into units of 40-160 acres per Indian. The remaining land was sold to white settlers.
1892-1897  Indian children forced  to attend white schools.
1892 Executive order sets aside the lands for Red Lake Reservation.
1893 Dawes Commission established to settle the problems with the "Five Civilized Tribes" over the break up of the Indian land holdings.
1898 Curtis Act Puts Indians under US laws and courts.
1899 Western  Indian Territory open to white settlers.
1906 Merger of Oklahoma and the Indian Territory.
1906  Theodore Roosevelt establishes the  Taos Forest Reserve and thus the Pueblos lose the Sacred Blue Lake.
1907 Oklahoma made a state and the Indian Territory no longer exists.
1922 The Benson Bill proposed. It would have given European American squatters rights on Pueblo land. As a result of public resistance the Pueblo Land Board was established to supply a fair method of resolution.
1924 Indians made citizens.
1934 Johnson-O'Malley Act passed. Congress sets up a method to coordinate state and federal agricultural, education, health care and welfare programs.
1934 Indian Reorganization Act sets up credit fund for Indian land purchases and restored tribal ownership of reservation land.
1934 AD Wheeler-Howard Act protects Native American Culture.
1944 AD National Congress of American Indians established to give Indians a voice in Indian affairs.
1946 AD Indian Claims Commission established to oversee claims against the US by the Native Americans.
1953 AD Termination Policy Congress propose to end federal support and protection of certain reservation Indians. Abandoned under growing Indian resistance.
1953 AD The Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Wampanoag tribes file court claims to land taken by white settlers.
1964 AD The Sioux of North Dakota gain the right to police their own reservation.
1969 AD A Senate subcommittee reports on the poor education being offered to Indian children. Recommends that the Indians have a say  in running the schools.
1970 AD The Bureau of Indian Affairs reorganized to bring decision making authority to the tribes.
1975 AD In the Indian self-determination and Education Assistance Act Congress gives Alaskan natives a chance to make important decisions affecting their tribes.
1979 AD  The American Indian Religious Freedom Act passes.
1978 AD US Claims Court takes over claims made by Native Americans against the US Government.
1980 AD Supreme Court Orders the US government to pay $122.5 million to the Sioux Indians in payment for land illegally taken in South Dakota in 1877.
1982 AD Supreme Court supports a tax levied by the Jicarilla Apaches in New Mexico in 1976. The tribes can now tax the production of oil, natural gas and other minerals on reservations.
1990 AD President Bush signs the bill protecting the Native American grave sites.
2001-2005 AD The Native Americans were used by Jack Abramoff, other lobbyist and politicians to advance their own political agendas. Additional information can be found at Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal - Wikipedia
December 8 2009 AD The government agreed to pay $1.4 billion to a group of American Indians as a result of the mismanagement of Native American land going back to the Dawes Act 1877 . The agreement is subject to Congressional and Federal Court approval.
October 19, 2010 "The Obama administration announced a $760 million settlement Tuesday to resolve charges by thousands of Native American farmers and ranchers who say that for decades the Agriculture Department discriminated against them in loan programs."  Source: Washington Post  (October 19, 2010)
November 19, 2010 Congress approves a payment of $4.5 billion to both Native Americans and African Americans (Native Americans will get $3.4 billion African Americans will get $1.14 billion) to settle the Agriculture Department land dispute discrimination case. ( Barack Obama signed the law shortly thereafter.
Source: Washington Post (November 20, 2010)
Information from 1994 TNT, TBS, CNN Curriculum  materials by Teachable Tech, Inc.
The People's Multicultural Almanac: America from the 1400s to Present.
The Peoples Publishing Group, Inc. Maywood, New Jersey 1194
Multicultural Resource Calendar, 1998-1999
Amerherst Educational Publishing Co. Amherst, Maine 1998.
Washington Post 200, 2010

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